TERMINOLOGY | DEFINITIONS | PRODUCT PROPERTIES | APPLICATION DETAILS

Sealers are products applied to surfaces, usually to reduce the penetration of undesirable materials, such as water or chlorides. Sealers may penetrate into the surface or form a very thin surface layer (typically less than 3 mils). Thicker surface treatments usually are called coatings.

Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions.

Floor coatings are tough, protective layers used in applications where heavy surface wear or corrosion is expected. Typical applications include warehouses, chemical plants, and manufacturing floors. Floor coatings can also be used to: brighten or define areas of facilities.

Insulating paint consist of honeycomb or ceramic hollow balls, which don’t just slow down the heat transfer through the walls but actually stops it all together! Therefore the heat has no choice but to go back into the room, or reflected back when applied outside of the building.

Thermal plaster is highly recommended to be used below the paint to increase the efficiency and effect allover.

TECHNICAL DATA SHEET (TDS) | MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS) | LABORATORY TESTS

The MSDS is a detailed informational document prepared by the manufacturer or importer of a hazardous chemical. It describes the physical and chemical properties of the product. MSDS’s contain useful information such as flash point, toxicity, procedures for spills and leaks, and storage guidelines. Information included in a Material Safety Data Sheet aids in the selection of safe products, helps you understand the potential health and physical hazards of a chemical and describes how to respond effectively to exposure situations.

The information of greatest concern to workers is featured at the beginning of the data sheet, including information on chemical composition and first aid measures. More technical information that addresses topics such as the physical and chemical properties of the material and toxicological data appears later in the document. While some of this information (such as ecological information) is not required by the HCS, the 16-section MSDS is becoming the international norm. The 16 sections are:

  • Hazard(s) identification
  • Composition/information on ingredients
  • First-aid measures
  • Fire-fighting measures
  • Accidental release measures
  • Handling and storage
  • Exposure controls/personal protection
  • Physical and chemical properties
  • Stability and reactivity
  • Toxicological information
  • Ecological information
  • Disposal considerations
  • Transport information
  • Regulatory information
  • Other information

A technical data sheet (TDS) is a document provided with a product that lists various pieces of information about the product. Such as, technical data sheets include product composition, methods of use, operating requirements, common applications, warnings and pictures of the product.

A technical data sheet may also be known as a product data sheet.

Ensure proper application of paint and coatings.

The Master Painters Institute (MPI) creates standards for paint application and quality. These standards ensure excellence through painting inspection, performance-based standards and lab testing. MPI standards assure you are able to: Improve application processes.

 

To verify the characteristic parameters of the coatings concerning the properties required to them, several physical-mechanical tests may be conducted in order to obtain specific information such as the thickness of the coating and the verification of the treatments it has sustained (conversions , …), brightness, color, hardness, adhesion or resistance to breakage due to violent deformation of the support. In this context, the following physical and mechanical tests can be conducted:

  • PAINT ADHESION BY MEANS OF CROSS CUT TEST
  • PAINT ADHESION BY MEANS PULL-OFF TESTER
  • PAINT HARDNESS BY MEANS OF PENCIL TEST
  • GLOSSINESS BY MEANS OF GLOSSMETER
  • COLOR EVALUATION BY MEANS OF SPECTROPHOTOMETER
  • BEND TEST
  • IMPACT TEST
  • DETERMINATION OF FILM THICKNESS BY MEANS OF EDDY CURRENT METHOD
  • MEASUREMENT OF THICKNESS BY MICROSCOPE EXAMINATION OF SECTION

CONDITIONING


Tests can be conducted to determine the behavior of paints and other types of coatings to prolonged exposure to conditions of temperature / humidity defined in accordance with the requirements of the coating or product specifications. These tests provide an indication of the likely performance that can be achieved under severe conditions of exposure when, for example, sudden temperature changes or prolonged exposure to high temperatures occur.
The procedures may show damage to the coating (blisters, spots, softening, wrinkling, detachment and embrittlement) and deterioration of the support. Conduct the following tests of conditioning:

  • HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDITIONING
  • LOW TEMPERATURE CONDITIONING (DOWN TO -50 °C)
  • THERMAL CYCLES WITH CONTROLLED RATE OF CHANGING
  • COMBINED CLIMATE CYCLE WITH CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY

RESISTANCE TO CORROSION


On paints and coatings may be conducted tests of resistance to corrosion in salt spray (NSS), acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and copper acetic acid salt spray (CASS) in accordance with ASTM B117 and ISO 9227 on metals and alloys, metallic coatings (anodic and cathodic), conversion coatings, anodic oxidation coatings and organic coatings on metal material:

  • NEUTRAL SALT SPRAY TEST
  • ACETIC ACID SALT SPRAY TEST
  • COPPER ACCELERATED ACETIC ACID  SALT SPRAY TEST
  • CYCLIC CORROSION TEST
  • HOT HUMID WITH CONTINUOUS CONDENSATION
  • WATER IMMERSION RESISTANCE TEST

AGING


In order to evaluate the behavior of paints and coatings in particular atmospheric or exposure conditions (humidity, temperature, sunlight, UV exposure) may be conducted accelerated aging tests in order to reproduce in the laboratory situations particularly severe. As a result of the aging test, a visual evaluation of the result is made and / or may be conducted further investigations on the specific characteristics requested to the coating under examination.

  • ACCELERATE AGING TO SOLAR RADIATION (AIR COOLED XENON LAMP)
  • WEATHERING (AIR COOLED XENON LAMP)
  • UV RADIATION AGING
  • ALTERNATED CYCLES TO CORROSION AND WEATHERING

RESISTANCE TEST TO CHEMICAL AGENTS


For coatings, resistance tests to chemical agents are useful for the determination of the resistance to liquids and/or chemical agents but in particular these tests are used for paints. The method to be used depends on the particular requirements of the product, the type of coating and the chemical agent should be chosen from those with whom, presumably, the product may come into contact with during its lifetime.
The various methods allow to assess the effect of the liquid and/or a chemical agents on the painted surface and, possibly, to evaluate the defect caused. Perform the following specific tests on paints and surface coatings:

  • RESISTANCE BY DROP APPLICATION
  • RESISTANCE BY IMMERSION
  • RESISTANCE BY APPLICATION OF SOAKED CLOTH

Surface Preparation

Grinding removes laitance, protrusions, surface contaminants and produces a smooth or polished surface, depending on the roughness of the abrading discs.

The discs move at right angles to the surface, and may leave circular patterns or gouges in the surface. Floor grinders are used for horizontal surfaces. Hand-held grinders are used on vertical surfaces.

Acid etching dissolves cement and exposes fine aggregates, leaving a sandpaper-like finish. It is used to remove laitance and to delicately roughen a surface in preparation for a sealant, primer or other thin coating. Acid is difficult and dangerous to work with: not only are acid fumes a health hazard, but they can etch any stainless steel or aluminum they come in contact with – such as electrical boxes and piping.

Needle scalers pulverize concrete surfaces by the pounding action of steel rods, driven by pneumatic or hydraulic pulses. Needle scalers are commonly used to remove efflorescence and other brittle encrustations. The impacts produce a cratered surface profile.

Abrasive blasting propels dry or moist abrasive in a stream of compressed air. Upon impact, the abrasive particles penetrate the substrate, dislodging fragments of mortar and fines, producing an overall eroding effect. Abrasive blasting removes surface contaminants, unsound concrete, coatings and adhesive films, and imparts a profiled surface.

In addition, vapor abrasive blasting is recommended for removing laitance, efflorescence and gently abrading delicate surfaces. Both methods may be used on horizontal, vertical, and overhead surfaces and are suitable for both interior and exterior applications.

Shotblasting propels steel shot against the concrete surface by means of a wheel. The impacts of the shot pulverize concrete and contaminants and roughen the surface. Spent shot is separated from waste products and recycled. Shotblasting is a preferred method for cleaning and profiling horizontal surfaces and has the same applications as abrasive blasting. In some special situations, robots can shotblast on horizontal planes.

Water jetting removes contaminants and roughens the surface via the impact of jets of high pressure and ultra high pressure water. It has the same applications as abrasive blasting and shot blasting, and can be used on vertical and overhead surfaces. It can produce CSP as low as three and as high as ten, ten being equal to the diameter of the coarse aggregate. In other words, water jetting can dislodge aggregates.

Water jetting removes contaminants and roughens the surface via the impact of jets of high pressure and ultra high pressure water. It has the same applications as abrasive blasting and shot blasting, and can be used on vertical and overhead surfaces. It can produce CSP as low as three and as high as ten, ten being equal to the diameter of the coarse aggregate. In other words, water jetting can dislodge aggregates.

Scabblers feature multiple pointed piston heads, pneumatically-driven, that pound the surface, chipping and crushing it. They produce coarse, irregular surfaces and are often used to demolish low concrete structures.

A surface retarder is a chemical sprayed onto freshly poured concrete to prevents hydration from occurring at the surface. The unreacted cement paste can then be removed by pressure washing or scrubbing, exposing coarse aggregate.

Tips on Screeding the Floor

One of the keys to good-quality solid flooring is the use of a screed. A screed, usually a cementitious material, is applied to create a smooth, level surface. Screeds can also be used to enclose heating elements.

Concrete is the most common base. The designer must establish the surface characteristics and the nominal thickness being allowed for the screed early in the design process. The thickness will have a large influence on the make-up and method of laying. Screeds can be laid on timber but it must be stable and a good-quality damp-proof course must be used.

Screed is usually a cementitious material made from a 1:3 to 1:4.5 ratio of cement to sand. A simple cement and sand mix will be fine for a simple application but more sophisticated mixes are suitable for a wider range of applications.

Optimum screed thickness is from 30 to 70mm. Modern construction programmes do not usually allow enough time for the moisture in a new screed to evaporate. Screeds more than 100mm thick contain large quantities of water that needs to dry out and can cause significant disruption late in the build process. Moisture content is important, as most floor finishes and adhesives are sensitive to it.

Screeds can be bonded to the sub-floor or unbonded.

Thicker screeds can accommodate services, but it is rarely a good idea to place these directly in the screed. It is better practice to feed pipes and cables through a conduit, particularly heating pipes, as these expand and contract.

Typically, the heating elements in underfloor heating systems are surrounded by a specially designed screed. This includes plastic reinforced pipes that can flex with temperature and a screed compound that will not crack even if relatively thin.

Laying a level floor screed over a large area is difficult and to do so “By eye” requires years of experience. However there is an easier way and this is where the word screed comes from. The word screed actually means “An accurately levelled strip” of material laid on a wall or floor as a guide for the even application of a covering.

  • Mix your floor screed at 4 sand to 1 cement. The mix should be fairly dry.
  • Lay the timber onto the floor.
  • When the timber is in position, place a shovel full of the mix every 300 mm along the timber and flatten out with a plasterer’s polyurethane float. The mixed screed should be about 75mm wide.
  • You will see that the screed you are placing naturally falls away at an angle at the side. When you have finished each mixed screed, cut this back square to the timber screed.
  • Remove the timber when you have finished a screed and place it in the next position. This needs to be done carefully to avoid damaging the edge of the screed and always wet the timber before laying the screed to avoid sucking moisture from the mix unnecessarily. This can be done quite simply with a paint brush and a container of water.

Leave the newly cast screeds for a day and then fill in the gaps with the same mix. Level across the screeds using your spirit level or a straight edged piece of timber, moving the mix around until it is absolutely level between your two screeds.

Which Primers to be used with products!

PUR PRIMER 1K, PUR PAINT 1K, AQUA HAYPER 1K, AQUA HAYPER 2K, PUR BITUMEN 1K, PUR BITUMEN 2K

If there is humidity in the surface; AQUA HAYPER 1K, AQUA HAYPER 2K, PUR BITUMEN 1K, PUR BITUMEN 2K

MS-420, HAYPERFLOOR PU 200, AQUA HAYPER 1K, AQUA HAYPER 2K, PUR PAINT 1K, PUR BITUMEN 1K, PUR BITUMEN 2K, TERRAZO COATING, HAYPERFLOOR PU 2000 SL, EPOXY SL 300, EPOXY PAINT SF, EPOXY PAINT TIXO, POOL PAINT

Products used without Primer

These products are used without primer, because primers are not designed for negative waterproofing.

Flexible waterproofing is intended for structures affected by temperature changes and water settlements. This kind of waterproofing is a protection capable of absorbing movements without suffering damages that could allow water access. Flexible treatments are membranes, hot asphalts, cold asphalts (based in water or solvent), polymer emulsions, vinyl emulsions, and acrylic emulsions.

With the following products the more thickness you give the more flexibility you get;

HAYPAROOF, HAYPAROOF PLUS, SUPER 2K, HYBRID 2K, AQUA HAYPER 1K, AQUA HAYPER 2K, AQUA BITUMEN 1K, AQUA BITUMEN 2K, PUR BITUMEN 1K, PUR BITUMEN 2K.

Important Facts about Waterproofing!

In building construction, a structure needs waterproofing. The main idea of waterproofing is to protect buildings against the damaging action of water and humidity that act negatively upon constructions.

  1. Wet walls and floors. If every time there’s a rainfall or a snowfall, your walls and floors of your home become wet.
  2. Flooding. It is an obvious fact that clean up for a flood could be extremely expensive.
  3. Structure deterioration. The cracks in the foundation and walls can weaken the structure. They are a serious problem and could result in the wall collapsing.
  4. Mold exposure which can create health problems. It can also cause symptoms that appear as a common cold. Respiratory problems, nasal congestion along with watery eyes, sore throat and skin irritations can be the result of toxic mold.

– Surface waterproofing: done with coating plates, bituminous emulsions, vinyl pastes, resins and sealants.

– Integral waterproofing: integrated to the mass of concrete, affecting its permeability.

– Hydrophanous waterproofing: integrated to the mixing water or used as curing systems.

– Rigid waterproofing is meant to seal filtration’s, make waterproof concrete structures or waterproof coatings. Treatments for rigid waterproofing generally are: concrete and cement integral additives, epoxy, plastic, or metallic coatings.

– Flexible waterproofing is intended for structures affected by temperature changes and water settlements. This kind of waterproofing is a protection capable of absorbing movements without suffering damages that could allow water access. Flexible treatments are membranes, hot asphalts, cold asphalts (based in water or solvent), polymer emulsions, vinyl emulsions, and acrylic emulsions.

Techniques for Plastering Walls and Ceilings?

Plastering walls and ceilings is considered to be the best way to get an even and smooth surface.

There are many different techniques for plastering walls and ceilings. The choice of technique depends on the client requirement, nature of the space, etc. Here are some of the most standard plastering techniques used for walls and ceilings.

This technique is largely based on the use of plasterboard. Since plasterboard is sold in the form of sheets in a standard size of 2.4m x 1.2m, it is not just easy to handle but also to put up. Moreover, it is a completely dry procedure and can be fixed quickly with tape etc. Paint can be applied on the surface to give a welcoming, warm finish.

One of the biggest reasons for builders to use dry lining is because of the speed of its installation as well as reduced load on the structure. Since plasterboard walls are lightweight, they offer greater flexibility on the drawing board, while allowing the freedom to change and create different interior spaces based on the family’s needs. Today, dry lining is the most preferred method of construction in timber frame structures. Dry lining is one of those plastering techniques that help save time and money.

It is one of the most commonly used of all plastering techniques. Wet plaster finish is obtained by covering the surface to be plastered in mortar and smoothened with trowels to produce a clean finish. The dried wet plastered surface can be papered or painted according to preference. However, like most plastering techniques, wet plastering job requires a skilled hand and sufficient time for drying. Unfortunately, wet plaster is also prone to cracks, shrinkage, and in frequent need of re-plastering to cover up the cracks.

Another plastering technique is screeding. Ready mixed screed is now being used on construction sites. This is extremely advantageous to all parties included as the mix is quality assured and helps save on time, labor, less wastage. Unfortunately, ready mixed screed isn’t cheap. Today cement screeds have been replaced by gypsum or calcium sulfate-based ones. These screeds are easier to handle, quicker to be laid. You must remember that all types of screed require plenty of time to completely dry out. Expected time period for which screeds should be left open is around 70 days.

Plastering techniques such as external plaster are also known as Stucco. When planning the type of external plaster to be used, it’s important to keep in mind the wear and tear and weather damages that may occur to make the right choice. Some of the exterior plastering choices you have include;

  • Rough Stucco: imitates stonework
  • Troweled Stucco: a finishing coat to hard plastering techniques
  • Colored Stucco: includes the use of lime oxides to produce attractive color finishes
  • Pebble-dash: includes the use of small rocks or stones or pebbles as the final finish

Besides these plastering techniques there are decorative finishes like plaster moldings including cornices and straight moldings for you to decorate your home with.

Tips on Tiling

  • Make sure your surfaces are suitable for tiling onto. For best results tiling need to be done on an even surface. Prepare the surface for a long lasting job before laying the ceramic tiles. The surface to be tiled (floor, wall or any other) will often need to be prepared, this can include work like leveling, smoothing and sometimes waterproofing. So if your walls and floor are bad you may need to plaster the walls and to screed the floor.
  • Plan the layout of your tiles so you know where they will all go before you even think about laying the first one. Planning the ceramic tile installation is one of the most important steps for a smooth, easy going and problem free tile installation.
  • A lot of walls in houses will not be parallel or square. The vertical corners may not be a perfect right angle with the horizontal. So if you start from one side or the very bottom your tiling may not end up square and not look good.
  • Use a spirit level to help you with the depth and level of the tiles and spacers to maintain an even distance between them.
  • The most productive and professional way to cut tiles is a wet saw equipped with a diamond blade. A wet saw includes a brace and guide to stabilize the tile as you cut. This is also the best way to achieve a fine, smooth cut in hard, dense tile such as porcelain.
  • You’ll have to fill the spaces between tiles with grout making sure you don’t leave any gaps as these cause damp problems, in a shower for example.
  • The technique is very simple, use a rubber faced trowel to spread the grout and a cotton cloth to clean the excess grout from the tiles afterwards.
  • Don’t forget to wear your safety goggles when cutting or chipping tiles. Try not to allow any adhesive to get on your skin and never forget to read the manufacturers directions before even opening the tin. If some ends up on you, just clean it with water as soon as possible. Even though tile adhesives aren’t usually abrasive, if you leave it for some time it may cause an allergic reaction.

CERTIFICATES

TS EN 1504-2 | RoHS Certificate of Conformity | REACH Certificate of Conformity | OHSAS 18001 | ISO 28000 | ISO 27001 | ISO 22716 | ISO 22301 | ISO 14001 | ISO 10002 | ISO 9001 | Fireproof Paint Analysis Report | EC REACH Lab. Report | CE Certificate 1504-2 | Capacity Report | AB RoHS Lab. Report